Introduction: Brachial plexus block for upper extremity is a valuable method of providing regional anesthesia. The key to success is based on the accuracy of needle placement, nerve localization, and local anesthetic injection. In recent years, ultrasound guidance is rapidly becoming the gold standard for regional athesthesia.
Objectives: Review of different aspects of needle guidance for Brachial plexus block regional anesthesia using ultrasound guided methods.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we used the references and published articles within 1990 -2016.
Results: The principles of ultrasound technology and different aspects of ultrasound guidance for regional anesthesia of brachial plexus such as interscalene, supraclavicular, infraclavicular, axillary nerves, and other three nerves known as the radial, median, and ulnar nerves were assessed in this review article. The results of this study showed that peripheral nerves block caused better nerve localization and less time for blocking, less volume of local anesthetic medicine, having better view, spread site, and less dangerous medicine toxicity, quicker onset, more complete nerve block, and higher time of block for sensory and motor nerves using ultrasound guidance.
Conclusions: The ultrasound techniques are cheap and available. Besides, they provide needle guidance using ultrasound in regional anesthesia and result in reduced pain, faster discharge, low complication rates, and high patient’s satisfactions. This technique may rapidly become the gold standard, compared with other techniques for regional anesthesia.
Conflict of interest: None declared.