Volume 15, Issue 57 (4-2006)                   jour guilan uni med sci 2006, 15(57): 40-47 | Back to browse issues page

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Khalkhali S, Najafi K, Nazifi F. The Frequency of Drugs and Substances Use in Opiate Dependenents. jour guilan uni med sci. 2006; 15 (57) :40-47
URL: http://journal.gums.ac.ir/article-1-479-en.html
Abstract:   (6289 Views)
Abstract Introduction: Some of the opiate dependents use other drugs and substances that confront them with more economic, social and medical problems and poor therapeutic outcome. Objective: This study was performed to identify the frequency of drugs and other substances used in opiate dependents referring to the clinic of welfare organization in Rasht. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive study, 96 patients admitted to the clinic from January 2002, in a 4 months period, were studied by clinical interview. The screening methods were not used. They were questioned about their time and type of substances (Opiate, Cannabis, Alcohol) or drugs (Codeine, Benzodiazepins, Barbiturats, Dextrometorphan, . . .) used, withdrawal symptoms, pattern of obtaining drugs or substances and history of lapses and relapses. DSM IV criteria’s for dependency or abuse were used. Results: From 96 patients studied 93 were male and 3 female, 31/3% unemployed, 81% lived in urban area, 44% with academic education lower than elementary, and 64% married. 12.5% had at least one year abstience, 30.2% without complete detoxification, 38.5% at least one month abstience and 21.4% two times and 9.4% three times of at least one month abstience. Opium in 63.5%, Heroin in 30.2% and Codein in 3.1% of subjects were the main opiates used. The most frequency of co morbidity was seen between opiates and benzodiazepins and between opiates and Alcohol. 21.8% of patients had multi substance dependency, 26% had co morbidity of opiate dependency and drug dependency, and 16.6% had co morbidity of multi substance dependency and drug dependency. The most common way of obtaining drugs were by prescription and pharmacy without prescription. Conclusion: The frequency of drugs and substances use and significant co morbidity between opiate dependency and dependency to other substances or drugs despite different geographical, cultural and economic backgrounds were similar to other countries. Greater emphasis on organizing drug policy, physicians’ education and treatment of comorbide conditions and evaluation of the effects of these interventions on drugs and substance use patterns is recommended.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2014/01/18 | Accepted: 2014/01/18 | Published: 2014/01/18

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