Volume 13, Issue 50 (7-2004)                   jour guilan uni med sci 2004, 13(50): 62-75 | Back to browse issues page

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Kelishadi R, Hashemi poor M, Sarraf zadegan N, Sadri G H, Bashar doost N, Alikhasi H, et al . Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Smoking and the Consequences of Smoking on Major Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Factors in Adolescent: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program- Heart Health Promotion from Childhood. jour guilan uni med sci. 2004; 13 (50) :62-75
URL: http://journal.gums.ac.ir/article-1-670-en.html
Abstract:   (8059 Views)
Abstract Introduction: Despite the health policies, the prevalence of smoking has been increasing among adolescents and the age of its beginning has been decreasing. Objective: This study was performed in order to consider the effects of environmental factors on smoking and its hazards on the health of adolescents in order to plan community-based interventions against it. Materials and Methods: In a longitudinal cross-sectional study performed in urban and rural areas of Isfahan, Najaf-Abad and Arak, 1950 questionnaires of students and the same number for parents and 468 questionnaires of school staff have been completed. Questionnaires about smoking were completed secretly and without name. Students have been selected by random multi-stage sampling from middle- and high schools. Physical examination and blood sampling was performed by expert nurses in schools. Results: Among students, 4% of girls, 12.9% of boys and 8.7% of all studied subjects reported to smoke at least one cigarette per day. The mean age of smoking was 14.61.7 years in girls and 14.8 1.69 years in boys (P=0.5). The prevalence of smoking in boys was significantly higher than that in girls (OR = 3.34, %95 CI=2.33-4.77, P<0.001). The mean value of total and LDL cholesterol was significantly higher in smokers and their HDL-C was lower than non-smokers (P < 0.05). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body mass index was significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (110.714.5, 67.611.35 mmHg, 20.343.84 vs. 104.914.3, 63.210.8 mmHg, 19.553.66, respectively, P<0.05). The mean consumption frequency was lower for fruits and vegetables and higher for fat/salty snacks in smokers than non-smokers. Only 5.6% of students mentioned that they became aware of smoking hazards from school staff and most of the students considered scientific TV programmes as the most important source for their knowledge about these hazards. The Odds Ratio of smoking was 1.56 (95% CI, 1.1-2.07, P=0.01) for those with smoker parents and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.22-2.32, P=0.001) with parents opposed to regular extracurricular exercise of their children. The father’s education level of smokers was significantly lower than non-smokers (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed significant effect of sex, age and number of smokers in family on adolescent smoking. Conclusion: Considering the susceptibility of adolescents to begin smoking, the role of families in this regard and inadequate information given in schools about the smoking hazards and also considering the higher prevalence of major CVD risk factors in smoker adolescents compared to non- smoker ones, it is suggested to implement community-based interventions through families, schools and mass media in order to increase the knowledge and to improve the practice of adolescents against smoking.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2014/07/8 | Accepted: 2014/07/8 | Published: 2014/07/8

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